DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df <p><strong>Title of Journal: DIET FACTOR (ISSN Online:2789-8105, Print:2789-8091)</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: BIANNUAL</strong></p> <p><strong>Affiliated with:</strong> Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 746-A, Kashmir Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href="http://www.clip.com.pk/">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>LMRC’s Journal of Nutritional &amp; Food Science <strong>(Diet Factor)</strong> is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed journal offering accessible and comprehensive coverage of food, beverage, and nutrition research. <strong>Diet Factor </strong>offers scientists and food professionals the prospect of sharing scientific encroachments in the myriad of disciplines affecting their work, to help advance the science of food and food innovation across the globe.</p> <p>The aim of the <strong>Diet Factor</strong> is to offer scientists and researchers an international forum to <em>enable</em> the rapid dissemination of practical and social applications of research at the forefront of food and nutritional sciences as well as interdisciplinary research that spans these two fields. The journal publishes double-blind peer-reviewed articles that covers all the aspects of food science, including the interface between production agriculture and food, as well as how food science influences health and nutrition. In all cases, the key findings in multidisciplinary articles must address some innovative or controversial practices and points of view of the science of food.</p> <p><strong>Diet Factor</strong> is committed to maintaining the highest standards of professional ethics, accuracy, and quality in all matters related to handling manuscripts and reporting scientific information.</p> <p>The journal welcomes empirical and applied research, viewpoint papers, conceptual and technical papers, case studies, meta-analysis studies, literature reviews, mini reviews and letters to the editors that take a scientific approach to the following topics: Dietetics, Community Nutrition, Obesity and Weight loss, Molecular Nutrition, Nutrigenomics, Metabolic, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms of Nutrients, Disease Prevention, Nutritional Methodologies and Modeling, Nutritional Epidemiology, Clinical Nutrition, Nutrition in different Cultural and Ethnic Groups, Nutrition in Life Cycle, Nutrition in Medical Management, Plant and Animal Nutrition, Diet and Aging and Age-related degeneration, Nutritional Public Health Initiatives, Policies and Legislation, Clinical and Community Nutrition and Health (including public health and multiple or complex co-morbidities) and Nutritional and Food Sciences.</p> <p><strong><u>Articles Submission &amp; Publication Fee</u></strong></p> <p>Processing Charges: None</p> <p>Publication Charges: None</p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here.</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor@dietfactor.com.pk">editor@dietfactor.com.pk</a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> CrossLinks International Publishers en-US DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) 2789-8091 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor@dietfactor.com.pk">editor@dietfactor.com.pk</a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Pre-History and History of legumes to 1900 https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/35 <p>Legumes are thought to be one of the earliest human-domesticated plants. We know from Bible that Lentils were also the ingredient of the cultivation and food of ancient Egypt. In Turkey, fossilized seeds of pea, lentils and other leguminous plants have been discovered from the fire places of Neolithic age, approximately 7000 to 8000 years B. C. ago. The human population inhabiting around the lakes during 4000-5000 B.C. in Switzerland, grew peas and a dwarf field bean. Farmers in China started to cultivate soy bean during 2000-3000 B.C. These crops were introduced and then started to cultivate in America and Asia nearly 3,000 years ago.</p> <p>For soil improvement Romans used used legumes in pastures dating 37 B. C. [1]. In Finland, pea cultivation has been documented since the 17<sup>th</sup> century it was common in the southwest, where soils contained enough clay and arable fields were available, and spread slowly throughout the country [2]. In Sub-Saharan Africa regarding the trends in production, distribution, trade of legumes, the approximate used area for total harvesting of all the leguminous crops was 20 million ha in 2006-2008, which is 28% of total area used for cultivating crops worldwide. From this area, 54% of the area was used for cow peas, 28% for dry beans and 18% for all other lentils. West and Central Africa produced estimated 2.6 million tons of cowpeas on 7.8 million ha per annum in 1990s, which was about 69% of the global production and harvesting [3].</p> <p> There is an estimated 10% of pulse contributions to protein intake and the top 16 developing countries out of 28, that are producing these crops, are from Sub-Saharan Africa. The top 5 countries in this list (Braudi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Comoros) are also in Sub-Saharan Africa. For the production of lentils in Sub- Saharan Africa, the area specified for this purpose is 17% while it is 10% in rest of the world [4]. The land required for the cultivation of legumes is of poor quality, meaning that there are no strict criteria for land and can be grown easily on any type of land. On the other hand, cereals such as wheat, maize, rice, barley requires fertilized land, temperature and humidity-controlled conditions for proper growth and they are also very sensitive crops. Legumes can be grown in areas with scarcity of water and are resistant to tough weather and land conditions. Unfortunately, the pulses and legumes do not get investment, resources and the Governments in most of the countries do not pay much attention to these crops as they are mostly consumed as secondary food while cereals are mostly assumed as priority attention crop. Cereals are considered as food security crops and policies are devised for their growth and protection [5].</p> <p>The proportions of cultivated legumes have great differences across the world. The cultivation of legumes uses 16% of total cultivated land globally and the soybean crop among these is the most important crop in America in terms of food choice, trade and financial impact. In Europe the area of grain legumes is about 4 million, in this area 8 million t legume seeds are produced. Pea is the dominant legume seed in Europe, which is cultivated on about 1 million ha [6]. Regular consumption o legumes are highly recommended due to their nutritional value among the food stuffs. In Middle Ages, they were one of the most important sources of energy (starch) and protein in the human diet. But now legumes have been replaced by potatoes, food of animal origin or cereals by their role [7]. However, attitudes towards legumes have been improving for some time now, and they are no longer consistently viewed as old-fashioned. The reasons for this are health benefits of legumes are being increasingly recognized and acknowledged [8].</p> Huma Badar Ul Ain Copyright (c) 2022 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 03 04 10.54393/df.v3i1.35 Phytochemicals And Nutraceuticals as A Promising Drug Candidate in Autism Spectrum Disorder https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/12 <p>Autism is a diversified group of neurological disorders having unknown cause which are interpreted entirely based on behavioral examination. During the last two decades, the frequency and prevalence rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have risen. The elevated level of oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant potential has been associated with this disorder. Further in autism, the genetic as well as environmental determinants may escalate susceptibility to oxidative stress. Elevated oxidative stress in ASD give rise to the development of this disorder regarding both clinical manifestations and pathological process. Autism manifests the characteristics like changes in complicated human behaviors which includes social interaction, communication and stereotypies. In addition, children suffering from autism may not be able to cope anxiety and behave unreasonably even to otherwise benign stimulators. It is proposed by growing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the etiology of autism. To detect epigenetic biomarkers for ASD, numerous studies have endeavored until now. Children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) usually show remarkable behavioral difficulties in combination with dysfunction in social relationship</p> Maria Aslam Muhammad Barkaat Azam Copyright (c) 2022 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 05 09 10.54393/df.v3i1.12 Eating Disorders https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/51 <p>A much discussed and worrisome topic today is growing ratio of eating disorders among people especially youth. Eating disorders are characteristic behavioral disorders which present persistent disturbances in eating behavior with body weight, body image and body shape continuously preoccupying an individual’s mind. These behavioral disorders affect a person’s social life along with affecting physical and psychological health. Excessive food intake, compulsive strenuous exercise, food restriction, starvation, use of laxatives, vomiting immediately after eating, binging and purging are some behaviors which depict the presence of an eating disorder. Collectively, up to 5% population, mostly adolescents and young adults suffer from eating disorders. Usually both male and female of any age and ethnicity are at equal risk of having an eating disorder but generally women suffer more as compared to men. Of eating disorders, anorexia and bulimia nervosa are common among females but can also occur in males. Psychiatric problems also occur hand in hand with eating disorders such as disproportionate mood swings, OCD, anxiety and panic attacks and different drugs abuse. Treatment of eating disorders involves treating psychological as well as physical complications along with addressing malnutrition, GERD and other gastrointestinal problems.</p> <p>Out of other eating disorders bulimia nervosa has shown increasing trends among youth. Binge eating or Bulimia nervosa is eating larger quantity of foods in shorter time span. A binge eater firstly binges on food, feels ashamed of his/her action and weight, purges secretly and also feels guilty for eating too much. While binging is done with consuming large quantity of food or filling up to the throat within short time, associated discomfort, nausea and vomiting source the purging phase. Occurrence of bulimia nervosa among young females and adolescents is high but statistics also indicate increasing ratios in young adolescent males. Although bulimia is common among youth, it can affect individuals of all ages and gender having low, normal or high weight.</p> <p>Adolescents and young adults suffering from bulimia nervosa are often those who are mentally preoccupied with weight issues, fear to gain weight, have a dreadful urge to lose weight, are super conscious and discontented with their body image, size and shape.</p> <p>An emblematic case of an individual with bulimia nervosa is often an adolescent to young adult female or male having an enthusiastic, goal oriented, perfectionist, and diligent, introverted and stubborn personality. Such individuals are also awful self-critics and tend to have low self-esteem based on body image distortion. Regardless of the physical parameters, binging on large quantities of food and then purging them out gives the person a sense of satisfaction by eating the desired type of food in hefty amounts along with a sense of control and relief by throwing up or excreting it out as an attempt to maintain weight. Generally the affected individuals do this to eat whatever they want while maintaining or losing weight upon wish. This mechanism also relieves stress, anxiety and reduces negative moods for them, keeping them calm and composed by giving the person a sense of control in at least one aspect of his/her life, which largely explains reason for the increased ratios of bulimia among youth who are constantly subjected to body shaming, peer pressure, fear of being left out, sky rocketing pressure from social media to be and look perfect and to be up to the mark with the societal beauty standards.</p> Riffat Mehboob Copyright (c) 2022 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 01 01 10.54393/df.v3i1.51 Evaluation of Pregnancies with Pre-existing Hypertension and Diabetes https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/44 <p>The complications in pregnancy can happen due to diabetes and hypertension which may affect the mother or the fetus. <strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate pregnancy in hypertensive and diabetic pregnant women to detect associated risk factors and complications. <strong>Methods:</strong>The research was a cross-sectional method of study, conducted over 4 months from December 2021 to March 2022 in a private hospital in Gujranwala, Pakistan. A sample size of 50 was considered as per convenience. The data was analyzed using SPSS V20 software. The age of patients considered was minimum 18 years to maximum 50 years . The scan was done using greyscale type 2D Mindary ultrasound equipment. A written consent form was also taken from patients. <strong>Results: </strong> The results showed that 15(30%) patients were presented with diabetes mellitus, 32(64%) has hypertension and 3(6%) has both hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The complications included low lying placenta and placental abruption in 1(2%), polyhydramnios in 3(6%) and oligohydramnios in 1(2%). Microcephaly was found in 1(2%) and hydrocephalus was seen in 2(4%). Fetal abortion was found in 7(14%) and only 3(6%) have chance of having a fetus with abnormalities due to hypertension and diabetes whereas most of them have normal birth 43(86%) with no complications. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, the majority of women with diabetes mellitus and hypertension can have a normal pregnancy and birth, but some may face difficulties such as intrauterine fetal mortality, fetal congenital abnormalities and defects and still birth</p> Hateem Qaiser Akash John Abid Ali Shehr Bano Nayyar Ashfaq Copyright (c) 2022 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 10 13 10.54393/df.v3i1.44 Evaluation of Liver Changes in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients using Computed Tomography https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/45 <p>There is an association between hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver, and diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients commonly have fatty liver and heart problems. <strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the adverse effects of diabetes on the liver, and to determine the association between diabetes and metabolic associated fatty liver disease using Computed Tomography. <strong>Methods: </strong>It was a cross-sectional study conducted on 50 diabetic patients using convenient sampling method. The research was carried out in CT Department of Radiology of Tertiary care hospital in Gujranwala, Pakistan. Males and females between the ages of 30-80 who had undergone abdominal CT scans were included in this study. A written consent form was also signed by patients. This study was conducted over 4 months from December 2021 to March 2022. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. <strong>Results: </strong>The current study revealed that male diabetic patients have more chances to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 33(66%) than females 17(34%). The diabetic patients of in senior age group (50-60) years were most commonly affected by 27(54%) with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease. According to findings diabetic patients frequently had fatty liver disease 22(44%) and fatty liver disease along with cardiovascular disease was 11(22%). Some other findings with less occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were hypertension and hyperlipidemia 7(14%). <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, diabetic patients are more common to be related with fatty liver disease. There was strong connection between diabetes mellitus and fatty liver disease. Elderly patients are more commonly affected.</p> Nayyar Ashfaq Akash John Abid Ali Amina Sharif Bhatti Hateem Qaiser Copyright (c) 2022 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 14 18 10.54393/df.v3i1.45 Awareness Regarding Colostrum Feeding Among Nursing Females https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/52 <p>Colostrum is well known for helping to fight infection and promote the growth and development of the infant. The acceptance of colostrum and the frequency of colostrum feeding vary between cultures in Pakistan. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine whether females are aware of the value of breastfeeding and colostrum feeding. <strong>Methods: </strong>Data collection was done through females attending Sheikh Zaid hospital, Rahim Yar Khan. In this cross-sectional study, non-probability convenient sampling was employed with a sample size of 100. <strong>Results: </strong>Among the women, 79 were knowledgeable about breastfeeding, whereas 21 were not. Also, 33 women started nursing right away after delivery compared to 67 who didn't. Lastly, the findings showed that just 10 women thought of colostrum as a complete source of nutrition, whereas 90 women did not have any idea. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings suggests that further efforts are needed to enhance the knowledge, attitude, and practice of colostrum feeding since many mothers were unaware of the significance of colostrum and initiation of breastfeeding soon after delivery.</p> Zainab Murtaza Malhi Faiz-ul-Hassan Shah Noor ul Huda Maria Aslam Misbah Arshad Copyright (c) 2022 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 19 23 10.54393/df.v3i1.52 Physical And Sensory Evaluation of Peanut Yogurt https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/48 <p>The word “yogurt” is related to the Turkish word “jaukurt” which means thick milk. Yogurt refers to a fermented milk product made by using selected microorganisms to develop not only the characteristic flavor but also body and texture. Peanut is one of the important nutrients which has significant amount of all essential nutrients. <strong>Objective: </strong>In this study physical and sensory properties of peanut yogurt are evaluated by using different scientifically proved sensory evaluation methods. <strong>Methods:</strong> Organoleptic evaluation of yogurt showed that storage as well as treatments had significant effect on all sensory parameters and a progressive deterioration in flavor, body &amp; texture and appearance of yogurt under various preparatory treatments. <strong>Results: </strong>Among treatments, highest scores were awarded to treatment containing 10 % peanut milk, 80 % skimmed milk liquid, 9 % skimmed milk powder and 1 % sugar, for all parameters and minimum changes were noted in it during the whole period of study. Recent investigation revealed that treatment T<sub>1</sub> (10 % peanut milk) was comparatively best for manufacturing of peanut milk yogurt followed by T<sub>2</sub> (20 % peanut milk + 70 % skimmed milk liquid + 9 % skimmed milk powder + 1 % sugar) while peanut milk yogurt from (30 % peanut milk + 60 % skimmed milk liquid + 9 % skimmed milk powder + 1 % sugar) had the lowest degree of firmness and organoleptic acceptance.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> It was noticed that correlation among fat, total solids and protein contents in peanut milk affect the extent of serum separation and pH of yogurt and ultimately the texture and overall acceptability of yogurt.</p> Misbah Arshad Zainab Sharmeen Asad Nawaz Amir Iqbal Copyright (c) 2022 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 24 28 10.54393/df.v3i1.48 Chemical Characterisation of Tamarind Plum Squash https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/49 <p>Tamarind plum containing red flesh when peeled is very intriguing fruit due to its high content of bioactive compounds, such as the anthocyanins and other polyphenolic compounds with a high antioxidant capacity. These natural substances found in plum acts to prevent diseases, including diabetes and cancer. <strong>Objective: </strong>In this study squash was prepared with tamarind plum to evaluate the quality and shelf-life extension of the fruit at different concentrations. <strong>Methods: </strong>The tamarind plum was used to prepare squash with different percentages of tamarind juice and plum juice but at same percentages of sugar, water, and sodium benzoic acid. Prepared squash was filled in polyethylene terephthalate bottles and analysed after 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days of storage. The tamarind plum squash was subjected to total phenolic compounds, pH, TSS, Titratable acidity, reducing and non-reducing sugar, and sugar acid ratio. <strong>Result: </strong>Maximum TSS (49.54), ascorbic acid (33.46), pH (2.29), titratable acidity (2.11), reducing sugar (24.29), and non-reducing sugar (37.64) was observed in squash prepared using tamarind juice (350ml), plum juice (400), sodium benzoic acid, sugar and water (2g, 1kg and 250ml). Storage showed significant effect on reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, pH and titratable acidity during nineteen-day storage. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>On the basis of above results it was concluded that sample TPS3 show best in keeping quality during storage time intervals. Hence, the results of sample TPS3 of tamarind plum blended squash is more recommended in terms of commercial use and for large scale industrial production. Squash prepared from tamarind and plum are more acceptable to consumers because of sour test, need commercialisation.</p> Muhammad Yasir Rafique Misbah Arshad Zinab Sharmeen Majida Umar Nasib Shahid Bashir Noor ul Huda Copyright (c) 2022 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 29 32 10.54393/df.v3i1.49 GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/31 <p>Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disease usually caused by the reflux of acidic gastric and duodenal contents into the distal esophagus. Major symptoms of GERD are acidity, heartburn, acid regurgitation, and chest pain. It is a digestive disease with the direct medical costs estimated around 9.3 billion dollars annually, and with the symptoms portending a low quality of life. The most common and known phenotype of GERD is Reflux esophagitis (RE). Many countries has a high prevalence of GERD, Especially in USA, about 44% of Americans suffer from GERD symptoms at least once monthly, 17% once weekly, and 7% once daily. Traditionally, GERD is less common in Asians. The overall prevalence of RE in Japanese adults is about 16%. Aging causes various physiologic changes in GIT that may increase the risk of developing complications such as GERD. Age-related changes in the physiology of the esophagus can be divided into two categories: motility and sensory. In general, changes in esophageal motility are mild and tend to be quiet in an older patient. It is possible that both the motility and nerve changes observed in the esophagus of older patients, combined with lower comorbidities and medication use, lead to a higher risk of esophageal mucosa to reflux and cause inflammation and development of GERD-related problems. Previously, it was thought that gastric acid release decreased with age, but further research revealed that the underlying mechanism may have been Helicobacter pylori infection that eventually developed atrophic gastritis. As the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection has decreased over the last 3-4 decades, more recent studies have shown that gastric acid secretion is maintained normally in more than 80% of elderly subjects. Comorbidity and commonly used drugs can reduce esophageal sphincter tone, esophageal clearance mechanisms, and saliva production.</p> <p>A low-fat diet likely contributes to a more favorable stomach distribution. Male gender, civil servant, smoking, strong tea, alcohol consumption, meat diet and body mass index (BMI) are risk factors associated with GERD. In many countries, dietary fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid (SFA), dietary fiber, and other nutrients are associated with GERD. An epidemiological study showed a link between high fat intake and GERD. Also, dietary fiber, particularly cereal fiber, has been found to reduce the risk of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and stomach, of which GERD is a well-known risk factor. The mechanism may be that dietary fiber reduces the intake of gastric nitrites, which is thought to promote reflux by relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). A high-fiber diet has played a protective role in GERD. However, dietary fiber reduced the number of gastroesophageal refluxes, but increased their duration, and had no significant effect on gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion. Diet plays an important role in controlling acid reflux symptoms and is the first line of treatment used for people with GERD. Foods high in fiber make you feel full, so you're less likely to overeat, which can contribute to heartburn. So get healthy fiber from these foods, such as whole grains like oatmeal, couscous, and brown rice, root vegetables like sweet potatoes, carrots, and beets, and green vegetables like asparagus, broccoli, and green beans. Lemon juice is generally considered very acidic, but a small amount of lemon juice mixed with warm water and honey has an alkalizing effect, neutralizing stomach acid. In addition, honey has natural antioxidants that protect the health of cells. On the other hand, Ginger is another top digestive aid due to its medicinal properties. It is alkaline in nature and anti-inflammatory, which eases irritation in the digestive tract. Try sipping ginger tea whenever you feel heartburn. The goal is to create a diet based on a healthy variety of foods, including fruits and vegetables, lean protein sources, complex carbohydrates, and healthy fats. If you suspect that food may be triggering or worsening your GERD symptoms, try keeping a daily, weekly diary.</p> Tabassum Tufail Copyright (c) 2022 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 02 02 10.54393/df.v3i1.31