DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences) https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df <p><strong>Title of Journal: DIET FACTOR (ISSN Online:2789-8105, Print:2789-8091)</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: Quarterly (w.e.f September Issue, 2023)</strong></p> <p><strong>Affiliated with:</strong> Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href="http://www.clip.com.pk/">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>LMRC’s Journal of Nutritional &amp; Food Science <strong>(Diet Factor)</strong> is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed journal offering accessible and comprehensive coverage of food, beverage, and nutrition research. <strong>Diet Factor </strong>offers scientists and food professionals the prospect of sharing scientific encroachments in the myriad of disciplines affecting their work, to help advance the science of food and food innovation across the globe.</p> <p>The aim of the <strong>Diet Factor</strong> is to offer scientists and researchers an international forum to <em>enable</em> the rapid dissemination of practical and social applications of research at the forefront of food and nutritional sciences as well as interdisciplinary research that spans these two fields. The journal publishes double-blind peer-reviewed articles that covers all the aspects of food science, including the interface between production agriculture and food, as well as how food science influences health and nutrition. In all cases, the key findings in multidisciplinary articles must address some innovative or controversial practices and points of view of the science of food.</p> <p><strong>Diet Factor</strong> is committed to maintaining the highest standards of professional ethics, accuracy, and quality in all matters related to handling manuscripts and reporting scientific information.</p> <p>The journal welcomes empirical and applied research, viewpoint papers, conceptual and technical papers, case studies, meta-analysis studies, literature reviews, mini reviews and letters to the editors that take a scientific approach to the following topics: Dietetics, Community Nutrition, Obesity and Weight loss, Molecular Nutrition, Nutrigenomics, Metabolic, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms of Nutrients, Disease Prevention, Nutritional Methodologies and Modeling, Nutritional Epidemiology, Clinical Nutrition, Nutrition in different Cultural and Ethnic Groups, Nutrition in Life Cycle, Nutrition in Medical Management, Plant and Animal Nutrition, Diet and Aging and Age-related degeneration, Nutritional Public Health Initiatives, Policies and Legislation, Clinical and Community Nutrition and Health (including public health and multiple or complex co-morbidities) and Nutritional and Food Sciences.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version (Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Submission are welcome and may be submitted here </span><a href="mailto:editor@dietfactor.com.pk">editor@dietfactor.com.pk</a></p> CrossLinks International Publishers en-US DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences) 2789-8091 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments</p> <p><a href="mailto:editor@dietfactor.com.pk">editor@dietfactor.com.pk</a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Assessment of Liver and Kidney Profile in Broiler Chicken Exposed to Food Azo Dye Tartrazine https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/86 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">Food additives give </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">aesthetic appearance of the materials </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">desired</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> by consumers. These have been categorized into preservatives, antioxidants, colorants, emulsifiers, flavors</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> and filters. Tartrazine is one of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">AZO dyes and i</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">s a commonly used food colo</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">r that</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">provides</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> a lemon</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">yellow color. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">There is conflicting data available about the toxic effects of tartrazine</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">o </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">determine</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">effects of tartrazine on </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">liver and kidney profiles</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> of broiler chicken</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> For this purpose, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">forty-five</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> broiler chicken</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">s were taken and divided into three groups, each with</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> fifteen chickens. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">The</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> two experimental </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">chicken groups</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> were treated with 5mg and 10 mg doses of tartrazine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">. The </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">observed parameters included</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">serum-level creatinine, urea,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">aspartate aminotransferase</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">(AST).</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">The parameters s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">erum level urea, serum level creatinine, ALT and AST have </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">shown significant increase</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> in experimental group I and II as compared to control group</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">All the parameters </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">observed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> in this study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">were increased</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">compared to</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">control group. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">AST and ALT parameters increased in experimental groups showing liver damage</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW160659918 BCX0"> </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW160659918 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Farah Ashfaq Sara Hayee Samia Kausar Fozia Bashir Amir Nadeem Tehreem Zahid Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 42 46 10.54393/df.v4i03.86 Biochemical Analysis and Nutritional Composition of Fenugreek Extract https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/105 <p><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW216558223 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">Fenugreek is important herb</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0"> because of their high phytochemical content, dietary fibre level, and nutritional value. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">Fenugreek </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">have a wide range of nutritional and physiological benefits and its value added products have been provided in this study.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0"> </span> </span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW216558223 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">Objective:</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">To characteriz</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">e the Fenugreek seeds</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0"> powder for its nutritional and chemical profile.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">Methods:</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">Fenugreek </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">was analysed for its chemical contents i.e. moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude fat and protein, minerals and antioxidants was quantified according to their procedures. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">Results:</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">The results showed fenugreek had higher values of proximate testing and other nutrients like minerals. The results showed fenugreek had higher antioxidants. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216558223 BCX0">In conclusion, Fenugreek outperform most chemical, nutritional, vitamin, and outstrip Fenugreek antioxidants criteria. It is convincingly suggested that Fenugreek be included in a diet-based treatment for rheostat lifestyle-related illnesses.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW216558223 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Madiha Khan Niazi Muhammad Osama Maooz Awan Faiza Ejaz Saleha Hameed Nimra Fatima Talha Noor Muhammad Anas Syed Zahoor-ul-Hasaan Zaidi Farooq Hassan Muhammad Amjed Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 47 50 10.54393/df.v4i03.105 The Relationship between Occupation and Serum Vitamin D Levels in Females during Summer in Sindh, Pakistan https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/85 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para" data-ccp-parastyle-defn="{&quot;ObjectId&quot;:&quot;033b0ded-2dae-4a22-823c-d5548f992704|56&quot;,&quot;ClassId&quot;:1073872969,&quot;Properties&quot;:[469775450,&quot;chapter-para&quot;,201340122,&quot;2&quot;,134233614,&quot;true&quot;,469778129,&quot;chapter-para&quot;,335572020,&quot;1&quot;,469777841,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469777842,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469777843,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469777844,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469769226,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,268442635,&quot;24&quot;,335559740,&quot;240&quot;,201341983,&quot;0&quot;,134233118,&quot;true&quot;,134233117,&quot;true&quot;,469777929,&quot;chapter-para Char&quot;,469778324,&quot;Normal&quot;]}" data-ccp-parastyle-linked-defn="{&quot;ObjectId&quot;:&quot;033b0ded-2dae-4a22-823c-d5548f992704|60&quot;,&quot;ClassId&quot;:1073872969,&quot;Properties&quot;:[469775450,&quot;chapter-para Char&quot;,201340122,&quot;1&quot;,134233614,&quot;true&quot;,469778129,&quot;chapter-paraChar&quot;,335572020,&quot;1&quot;,134231262,&quot;true&quot;,469777841,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469777842,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469777843,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469777844,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,469769226,&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,268442635,&quot;24&quot;,469777929,&quot;chapter-para&quot;,469778324,&quot;Default Paragraph Font&quot;,469778325,&quot;[\&quot;EndNote Bibliography Title Char\&quot;,\&quot;EndNote Bibliography Char\&quot;]&quot;]}">Vitamin D deficiency is a co</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">nsiderable public health issue</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> affecting </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">predominantly South</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> Asians. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">o </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> the vitamin D levels in females related to different occu</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">pations during summer</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> in Sindh, Pakistan</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> A comparative cross-sectional study was performed at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">. </span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">H</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">ealthy females</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> (</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">n</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> = 236)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> were recruited according to different occupations into four groups: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">outdoor </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">workers</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">office workers</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">, students, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">housewives</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">Overall</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">, 43.6% were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">vitamin D </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">deficient, 28.9% were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">vitamin D </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">insufficient, and 27.5% of females had sufficient vitamin D levels.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> H</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">ypovitaminosis D was highly p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">revalent in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">housewives</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> (62.7%) compared to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">outdoor workers</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> (16.9%)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">In general, the mean vitamin D of all examined groups was found to be less than </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">optimal</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para"> level, and significant differences were noted between occupational groups. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-parastyle="chapter-para">The results showed that hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among Pakistani females. Moreover, occupations associated with reduced sun exposure may pose an added risk.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW253533262 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233117&quot;:false,&quot;134233118&quot;:false,&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559738&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Keenjhar Rani Feriha Fatima Hina Riaz Sindhu Laghari Hira Laghari Abid Hussain Khuwaja Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 51 56 10.54393/df.v4i03.85 Exploring the Anti-Anemic Potential of Bauhinia variegata Linn Leaves Powder Biscuits in Animal Modeling https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/102 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Globally, Anemia is one of the most prevalent disease. In developing countries women and children suffered more from anemia. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">o develop and explore the anti-anemic potential of iron enriched biscuits by using </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Bauhinia </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">variegata</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> leaves powder. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Longitudinal study design was followed to</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">check the therapeutic </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">effect of B</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">auhinia </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">variegata</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> leaves powder biscuits in anemia-induced rats. For this purpose, dried powder of B</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">auhinia </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">variegata</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> leaves </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">powder was prepared and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">functional </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">biscuits were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">developed by utilizing </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Bauhinia </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">variegata</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> leaves powder and lemon juice. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Thirty male </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">anemia-induced albino rats were randomly divided into three groups G</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW175012896 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> (standard diet), G</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW175012896 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">2</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> (biscuits with 10 g </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Bauhinia </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">variegata</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> leaves powder) and G</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW175012896 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">3</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> (biscuits with 10 g </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Bauhinia </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">variegata</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> leaves powder and 10 mL lemon juice). Feed intake, water intake, total body weight gain and hemoglobin levels of rats were determined after an interval of 15 day for study period of two months. The results obtained was statistically analyzed. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">The results showed that functional biscuits prepared by using </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Bauhinia </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">variegata</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> leaves powder (high in iron) and lemon juice (rich in Vitamin C) significantly improved the feed intake, water intake, total body weight gain and hemoglobin levels of rats during 60 days study period. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Conclusively,</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">Bauhinia </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0">variegata</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0" lang="EN" xml:lang="EN" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW175012896 BCX0"> leaves powder and lemon juice in combination are effective against anemia.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW175012896 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;134245417&quot;:false,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;469777462&quot;:[9540],&quot;469777927&quot;:[0],&quot;469777928&quot;:[1]}"> </span></p> Shiza Ahmed Uswa Ahmad Saleha Hameed Sana Azher Ayesha Malik Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 57 61 10.54393/df.v4i03.102 Revolutionizing Potato Farming: Dynamic Innovations Reshaping Late Blight Control in Pakistan https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/96 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8">Potato </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8">(Solanum tuberosum L.)</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8"> is one of the most extensively cultivated crops around the</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8"> world</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8">, and Pakistan’s weather favor production and cultivation. Despite the ease of cultivating potatoes and the nominal labor supplies, Pakistan’s output of potatoes has not yet achieved a promising level when compared to nearby nations like India and Bangladesh. The crop's low production in Pakistan is caused by several biotic and abiotic stresses that instigated several pathogenic diseases such as early blight, bacterial wilt, viral infections, nematode </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8">infestations</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8"> and late blight. Late blight disease is one of the most dreaded diseases of potatoes globally. It is caused by the fungus </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8">Phytophthora </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW25364297 BCX8">infestans</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8">which is highly adaptive to fungicides. Several fungicides have been in use against this disease for a long time, however</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8"> it has developed a high degree of resistant strains to these fungicides due to their unselective use over time and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8">ultimately may</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8"> cause colossal losses to the crop. In response, scientists have developed different potato varieties like Setanta, Nicola, Cara and Acoustic that are highly resistant to late blight. Similarly, cultural methods are also employed to combat late blight disease. This article </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8">provides</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW25364297 BCX8"> an overview of the implications of late blight disease in potato cultivation and explores various strategies to reduce yield losses brought on by this disease via the application of synthetic fungicides. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW25364297 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559685&quot;:-5,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;335559991&quot;:10}"> </span></p> Saadullah Khan Arsalan Iqbal Osama Alam Sawaira Khan Ummul Falah Hashim Ali Hashmi Qasim Khan Sumbal Ghani Faheem Ullah Ibrahim Khan Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 02 07 10.54393/df.v4i03.96 Juicy Gems of Nutrition: Exploring the Nutrient Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Rosaceae Fruits https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/82 <p>Fruit consumption provides valuable phenolic antioxidants and nutrients that are essential to subsidize consumers' health. The functional food value of many fruits belonging to the <em>Rosaceae</em> family is considerably high which is derived from their medicinal and nutritional attributes. This value contributes to the overall health and dietary practice of the consumer. Apples, pears, loquats, peaches, plums and apricots are some of the most desirable and economically viable members of this family. The present review aims a detailed evaluation of the nutritional composition, organic acid, sugar contents, and phenolic antioxidants of these beneficial fruits. Sucrose occurs in plum, loquat, peach and apricot fruits predominantly, in contrast, fructose was mainly present in apples and pears. The primary organic acids were citric, tartaric and malic acid in the tested fruits. The FRAP, TEAC and ORAC values were strongly correlated and almost similar to the total phenols (TP) in the extract of the tested samples. The phenolic acid assessment indicated that <em>p-coumaric</em> acid is the major compound in plums, apricot; gallic acid in loquat and caffeic acid in apple, peach and pear fruits. Overall, the results indicate that these Pakistani fruits contain significant levels of phenolic antioxidants and nutritionally valuable compounds, so they can be considered advantageous ingredients for the nutraceutical and food industry.</p> Maleeha Manzoor Amna Mahmood Malaika Ajaz Waleed Rasool Muhammad Aqib Shabbir Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 08 19 10.54393/df.v4i03.82 Management of Obesity through Diet and Exercise https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/87 <p>Worldwide, Pakistan is ranked as the 6<sup>th</sup> most highly populated country. Approximately 1.6 million deaths are due to the health problems associated with obesity. Obesity is the root cause of any health problem and can lead to many serious diseases of the heart, lungs, and kidneys, and can cause death. Lack of physical activity, excessive consumption of food, and unawareness is the main cause of obesity in Pakistan. The obesity ratio of people living in urban areas is more than people living in rural. To describe the different types of exercises and diet plans for losing weight in an obese person. This literature review is written by the collection of many search websites like Google Scholar, Pub Med, Sci-Hub, Centre of Disease Control, etc. It is used to enhance the awareness of weight management interventions with the help of evidence-based practice. Weight reduction can be accomplished by following the standard guidelines and different ways of weight management programs. </p> Komal Jamil Syeda Rida Baqir Muhammad Faisal Fahim Prem Lata Bismah Khan Muneeba Aziz Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 28 10.54393/df.v4i03.87 Potent Hypoglycemic Phytochemicals from Citrus https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/78 <p>In particular, when it comes to the cure and management of chronic diseases, consuming a diet that contain natural products such as; plants is crucial for health promotion. Citrus fruit has been widely consumed and possess nutritional components that supports the management and cure of various disease conditions and the underlying metabolic changes that leads to development of long term serious diseases. Multiple citrus fruit species are analyzed for their curative effect particularly for the diseases that are associated with metabolic alterations such as diabetes, heart burn and dyspepsia. Diabetes is found to be effectively cured and allied health problems are managed by the use of citrus fruits and the specific secondary metabolites found in citrus fruits such has; hesperidin, naringenin and nobiletin. Citrus fruits primarily contain flavonoids, which have a number of advantageous properties for health promotion, especially anti-diabetic effects. Present review enlightened the specific curative potential of citrus fruits and phytochemicals on the living organisms, the potential anti-diabetic efficacy and the metabolic pathway of citrus bioactive compounds hesperidin and naringenin is explained. Mechanistic regulation of metabolic disturbances owing to various disease conditions that are root caused by diabetes are effectively done by the bioactive compounds of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits have matchless benefits when it comes the issues of hyperglycemia, while their antidiabetic effects and have ameliorative effect on diabetes related health problems remain to be verified in detail at molecular and clinical level in forthcoming studies.</p> Tayyiba Afzal Yamin Bibi Zia ur Rehman Mashwani Syeda Sobia Gilani Neelum Naheed Aqsa Jabeen Raafia Noor Afzal Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 29 37 10.54393/df.v4i03.78 Nutraceutical and Medicinal Uses of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/100 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0">This article elucidates the medicinal and pharmacological properties of Aloe vera, a widely </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0">recognized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0"> plant that thrives in semi-arid climates found in tropical and subtropical areas. The potential medical, therapeutic, and nutritional nutraceutical applications of A. vera components are highlighted in this article. Plants are grown for their agricultural, medicinal, and decorative qualities when kept indoors in pots. Plants are an excellent source of chemical components that </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0">exhibit</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0"> a broad range of biological functions. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0">One of Aloe Vera's most bioactive polysaccharide, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW12140905 BCX0">acemannane</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0">, is known to modulate immunity and have anti-cancer, </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW12140905 BCX0">anti-oxidant</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0">, bone-healing, neuroprotective, and intestinal health-promoting properties. Since the beginning of time, people have employed the mucilaginous gel created by the parenchymal cells in the aloe vera pulp for </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW12140905 BCX0">a number of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0"> therapeutic purposes. Aloe vera has been </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0">utilized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0"> as a nutraceutical for many years. This page highlights significant applications of A. v</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0">era components as</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0"> medicines and therapeutic foods</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0"> Aloe vera gel showed the presence of over 200 phytochemicals. Aloe vera gel is taken from the plant's leaves, and the final goods must be stabilized and prepared using the proper processing methods.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW12140905 BCX0"> </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW12140905 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240,&quot;469777462&quot;:[10890],&quot;469777927&quot;:[0],&quot;469777928&quot;:[1]}"> </span></p> Madiha Khan Niazi Muhammad Usama Maooz Awan Syed Zahoor-Ul-Hassan Zaidi Quratul Ain Shahid Talha Ahmed Ayesha Aslam Sahar Imran Farooq Hassan Muhammad Amjed Ismail Wajeeha Abid Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 38 41 10.54393/df.v4i03.100 Shaping Diets for Gut Health: Understanding the Microbial Influence https://www.dietfactor.com.pk/index.php/df/article/view/106 <p>The human gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that constitute a dynamic ecology involved in both health and disease. Although the makeup of the gut microbiota varies from person to person and is often stable over the course of a lifetime, numerous researches have noted daily variations [1]. One important modifiable factor that affects the composition of the gut microbiota is diet. It becomes clear that microbial diversity, composition, and stability can be controlled through therapeutic dietary approaches. A diverse and abundant microbial ecosystem boosts immunological responses, increases mental well-being, and maintains proper metabolic balance. The Western diet that is characterized by the high intake of artificially processed food and low fiber content has been associated with the exponential decrease in microbial diversity and consequent health issues including gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation and metabolic disturbances [2]. Contrary to it, diverse diet which includes all types of natural sources, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grain, nuts seeds and legumes has been proved to introduce an array of nutrients and fibers fueling our gut microbiota. For instance, dietary fiber aid in the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Moreover, polyphenols and antioxidants present in various plant-based foods exhibit pre-biotic effects, and maintain the gut environment favorable for the proliferation of microbiota [3]. This diverse intake provides a spectrum of substrates that are essential for the bacterial metabolism and also contribute in the growth of diverse range of beneficial bacteria. This dietary diversity not just includes the variety of foods but also involves mindful choices, balanced combination and understand the association of diet and microbiota. In addition, other lifestyle factors also influence over the microbial environment. Chronic stress, irregular sleep patterns and sedentary habits impact the activity and growth of the microbial diversity. It is not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ concept and personalized nutrition strategies are required depending upon the individual variations in microbial composition. Future research should incorporate long-term dietary assessments with short-term diet interventions to improve the findings of diet-microbiome relationship. Interdisciplinary collaborations are significant to navigate the complex relationships encompassing the knowledge from different disciplines such as microbiology, nutrition, behavioral and clinical sciences, allowing us to pave the way for dietary recommendations that prioritize gut health and overall well-being.</p> Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2023 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional & Food Sciences) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 01 01 10.54393/df.v4i03.106